View also the Zika Open bulletin of the WHO. This Bulletin is an international journal of public health with a special focus on developing countries. Since it was first published in 1948, it has become one of the world’s leading public health journals. In keeping with its mission statement, the peer-reviewed monthly maintains an open-access policy so that the full contents of the journal and its archives are available online free of charge. As the flagship periodical of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Bulletin draws on WHO experts as editorial advisers, reviewers and authors as well as on external collaborators. Anyone can submit a paper to the Bulletin, and no author charges are levied.
- Facile green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Ulva lactuca seaweed extract and evaluation of their photocatalytic, antibiofilm and insecticidal activity.
Facile green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Ulva lactuca seaweed extract and evaluation of their photocatalytic, antibiofilm and insecticidal activity. [Journal Article]J Photochem Photobiol B 2017 Nov 07.:249-258.JPIshwarya R, Vaseeharan B, Kalyani S, et al. The bioactivity of semiconductor nanocomplexes has been poorly studied in the field of pesticide science. In this research, the synthesis of zinc nanoparticles was accomplished through new effortless g...Publisher Full TextThe bioactivity of semiconductor nanocomplexes has been poorly studied in the field of pesticide science. In this research, the synthesis of zinc nanoparticles was accomplished through new effortless green chemistry process, using the Ulva lactuca seaweed extract as a reducing and capping agent. The production of U. lactuca-fabricated ZnO nanoparticles (Ul-ZnO Nps) was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The U. lactuca-fabricated ZnO NPs were tested for their photodegradative action against organic dyes, as well as for antibiofilm and larvicidal activities. The UV visible absorbance spectrum of Ul-ZnO NPs exhibited the absorbance band at 325nm and TEM highlighted average crystallite sizes of nanoparticles of 10-50nm. Methylene blue (MB) dye was efficiently corrupted under sunlight in presence of Ul-ZnO NPs. Excellent bactericidal activity was shown by the Ul-ZnO Nps on Gram positive (Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilis) and Gram negative (Escherichia coliand Proteus vulgaris) bacteria. High antibiofilm potential was noted under both dark and sunlight conditions. The impact of a single treatment with Ul-ZnO NPs on biofilm architecture was also analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) on both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Moreover, Ul-ZnO NPs led to 100% mortality of Aedes aegypti fourth instar larvae at the concentration of 50μg/ml within 24h. The effects of ZnO nanoparticle-based treatment on mosquito larval morphology and histology were monitored. Overall, based on our results, we believe that the synthesis of multifunctional Ul-ZnO Nps using widely available seaweed products can be promoted as a potential eco-friendly option to chemical methods currently used for nanosynthesis of antimicrobials and insecticides.
- Congenital Zika virus infection: a neuropathological review.
Congenital Zika virus infection: a neuropathological review. [Journal Article]Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Nov 22.CNChimelli L, Avvad-Portari E A spectrum of neuropathological changes, from severe microcephaly to obstructive hydrocephalus was observed. The severity of the lesions is directly related to the gestational age, the most severe occu...Publisher Full TextA relationship between Zika virus (ZikV) infection in pregnancy and the occurrence of microcephaly was established during the Zika outbreak in Brazil (2015-2016). Neuropathological findings in congenital Zika syndrome helped to understand its pathogenetic mechanisms.The most relevant postmortem findings in the central nervous system (CNS) of fetuses and neonates infected with ZikV early in gestation are microcephaly with ex-vacuo ventriculomegaly and large head circumference associated with obstructive hydrocephalus due to severe midbrain and aqueduct distortion. Babies with severe brain lesions are born with arthrogryposis. Histologically, there is extensive destruction of the hemispheric parenchyma, calcifications, various disturbances of neuronal migration, reactive gliosis, microglial hyperplasia and occasional perivascular cuffs of lymphocytes, also in the meninges. Hypoplastic lesions secondary to the lack of descending nerve fibers include small basis pontis, pyramids and spinal corticospinal tracts. Cerebellar hypoplasia is also common. Severe nerve motor nerve cell loss is observed in the anterior horn of the spinal cord.A spectrum of neuropathological changes, from severe microcephaly to obstructive hydrocephalus was observed. The severity of the lesions is directly related to the gestational age, the most severe occurring when the mother is infected in the first trimester. Infection of progenitor cells at the germinal matrix was demonstrated. The lack of spinal motor neurons is responsible for fetal acynesia and consequent arthrogryposis.
- The importance of human population characteristics in modeling Aedes aegypti distributions and assessing risk of mosquito-borne infectious diseases.
The importance of human population characteristics in modeling Aedes aegypti distributions and assessing risk of mosquito-borne infectious diseases. [Journal Article]Trop Med Health 2017.:38.TMObenauer JF, Andrew Joyner T, Harris JB Modeling mosquito distributions without accounting for their dependence on local human populations may miss factors that are very important to niche realization and subsequent risk of infection for hum...The mosquito Aedes aegypti has long been a vector for human illness in the Southeastern United States. In the past, it has been responsible for outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever and, very recently, the Zika virus that has been introduced to the region. Multiple studies have modeled the geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti as a function of climate factors; however, this ignores the importance of humans to the anthropophilic biter. Furthermore, Ae. aegypti thrives in areas where humans have created standing water sites, such as water storage containers and trash. As models are developed to examine the potential impact of climate change, it becomes increasingly important to include the most comprehensive set of predictors possible.This study uses Maxent, a species distribution model, to evaluate the effects of adding poverty and population density to climate-only models. Performance was evaluated through model fit statistics, such as AUC, omission, and commission, as well as individual variable contributions and response curves. Models which included both population density and poverty exhibited better predictive power and produced more precise distribution maps. Furthermore, the two human population characteristics accounted for much of the model contribution-more so than climate variables.Modeling mosquito distributions without accounting for their dependence on local human populations may miss factors that are very important to niche realization and subsequent risk of infection for humans. Further research is needed to determine if additional human characteristics should be evaluated for model inclusion.
- Neuroimaging Findings in Normocephalic Newborns With Intrauterine Zika Virus Exposure.
Neuroimaging Findings in Normocephalic Newborns With Intrauterine Zika Virus Exposure. [Journal Article]Pediatr Neurol 2017 Oct 19.PNMulkey SB, Vezina G, Bulas DI, et al. Cranial nerve enhancement and cerebral infarction may be among the expanding list of neurological findings in congenital Zika infection. Postnatal brain magnetic resonance imaging should be considered ...Publisher Full TextCongenital Zika infection can result in a spectrum of neurological abnormalities in the newborn. Newborns exposed to Zika virus in utero often have neuroimaging as part of their clinical evaluation.Through the Congenital Zika Program at Children's National Health System in Washington DC, we performed fetal or neonatal neuroimaging, including magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, on over 70 fetuses or neonates with intrauterine Zika exposure. Novel findings on neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging were observed in two cases.Gadolinium-contrast magnetic resonance imaging showed enhancement of multiple cranial nerves at three days of age on one infant. Another infant underwent magnetic resonance imaging at 16 days of age and was shown to have a chronic ischemic cerebral infarction. This infant had previously normal fetal magnetic resonance imaging.Cranial nerve enhancement and cerebral infarction may be among the expanding list of neurological findings in congenital Zika infection. Postnatal brain magnetic resonance imaging should be considered for newborns exposed to Zika virus in utero.
- Stagnant contraceptive sales after the Zika epidemic in Brazil.
Stagnant contraceptive sales after the Zika epidemic in Brazil. [Journal Article]Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2017 Nov 23.:1-3.EJBahamondes L, Ali M, Monteiro I, et al. The data showed much higher sales of short-acting methods compared with more effective LARC methods. The public sector needs to strengthen its focus on ensuring better access to LARC methods through a ...Publisher Full TextOur aim was to assess national hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive sales in Brazil after the Zika virus outbreak.Pharmaceutical companies based in Brazil provided data on monthly sales from September 2016 to June 2017. Data from both the public and private sectors were obtained about sales of registered, available modern contraceptive methods: combined oral contraceptive pill; progestin-only pill; vaginal and transdermal contraceptives; injectable contraceptives; long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods, including the copper-releasing intrauterine device, the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system and the etonogestrel-releasing subdermal implant; and emergency contraceptive pills.Seventy-eight percent of sales comprised pills, patches and vaginal rings (11.1-13.8 million cycles/units per month), followed by emergency contraceptive pills (1.8-2.6 million pills), injectables (1.2-1.4 million ampoules) and LARC methods (6500-17,000 devices).The data showed much higher sales of short-acting methods compared with more effective LARC methods. The public sector needs to strengthen its focus on ensuring better access to LARC methods through a systematic approach ensuring regular supply, improved professional skills and better demand generation to couples wishing to avoid or delay pregnancy. In Zika virus-affected areas, many women of reproductive age may want to delay or postpone pregnancy by using an effective LARC method. The public sector should review its policies on LARC, as the need for these methods especially in Zika virus endemic areas may increase. A clear emphasis on quality in services, access and use is warranted.
- Congenital Zika virus infection in twin pregnancies.
Congenital Zika virus infection in twin pregnancies. [Journal Article]Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2017 Oct; 75(10):762.ANJoob B, Wiwanitkit V Publisher Full Text
- Presumed Zika virus-related congenital brain malformations: the spectrum of CT and MRI findings in fetuses and newborns.
Presumed Zika virus-related congenital brain malformations: the spectrum of CT and MRI findings in fetuses and newborns. [Journal Article]Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2017 Oct; 75(10):703-710.ANCastro JDV, Pereira LP, Dias DA, et al. We hope to assist the medical community in recognizing the spectrum of encephalic changes related to congenital Zika virus infection.Publisher Full TextThe new epidemic of Zika virus infection raises grave concerns, especially with the increasingly-recognized link between emerging cases of microcephaly and this infectious disease. Besides small cranial dimensions, there are striking morphologic anomalies in the fetal brain. Key anomalies include cortical developmental malformations and a peculiar distribution of pathologic calcifications. These potentially indicate a new pattern of congenital central nervous system infection.Eight women underwent fetal MRI. Four infants also underwent postnatal CT. Five of the women underwent amniocentesis.All neonates were born with microcephaly. On fetal MRI, ventriculomegaly, marked reduction of white matter thickness, severe sylvian fissure simplification, abnormal sulcation, and diffuse volumetric loss of cerebellar hemispheres were consistently seen. On postnatal CT, diffuse subcortical and basal ganglia calcifications were observed. The Zika virus was detected in two amniocenteses by polymerase chain reaction assays.We hope to assist the medical community in recognizing the spectrum of encephalic changes related to congenital Zika virus infection.
- Transmission scenarios of major vector-borne diseases in Colombia, 1990-2016.
Transmission scenarios of major vector-borne diseases in Colombia, 1990-2016. [Journal Article]Biomedica 2017 Mar 29; 37(0):27-40.BPadilla JC, Lizarazo FE, Murillo OL, et al. Introducción. Las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores representan más de 17 % de todas las enfermedades infecciosas y causan anualmente un millón de defunciones a nivel mundial. En Colombia, la mala...Introducción. Las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores representan más de 17 % de todas las enfermedades infecciosas y causan anualmente un millón de defunciones a nivel mundial. En Colombia, la malaria, el dengue, la enfermedad de Chagas y las leishmaniasis son condiciones endemoepidémicas persistentes.Objetivo. Determinar el comportamiento epidemiológico de las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores en zonas urbanas y rurales de Colombia entre 1990 y 2016.Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo del comportamiento epidemiológico de las principales enfermedades transmitidas por vectores en zonas urbanas y rurales de Colombia entre 1990 y 2016, con la información proveniente de fuentes oficiales secundarias.Resultados. En el periodo estudiado se registraron 5'360.134 casos de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, de los cuales 54,7 % fueron de malaria y 24,9 % de dengue. Estos casos concentraron el 80 % de la carga acumulada de casos de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores. Las medianas de las tasas de incidencia fueron 1.371 y 188 por 100.00 habitantes para malaria y dengue, respectivamente. Además, los casos de chikungunya fueron 774.831 desde su introducción en el 2014 y, los de Zika, 117.674 desde su aparición en 2015. En las zonas rurales predominaron las enfermedades parasitarias transmitidas por vectores como la malaria, las leishmaniasis y la enfermedad de Chagas. A nivel urbano, predominaron el dengue, el chikungunya y el Zika.Conclusiones. La transmisión en Colombia de estas enfermedades es persistente en las zonas urbanas y en las rurales, y de tipo endemoepidémico en los casos de malaria, dengue, leishmaniasis y enfermedad de Chagas. Dicha transmisión se ha dado de manera focalizada y con patrones variables de intensidad. Asimismo, se mantienen las condiciones que han favorecido la transmisión emergente de nuevas arbovirosis.
- Intranasal infection and contact transmission of Zika virus in guinea pigs.
Intranasal infection and contact transmission of Zika virus in guinea pigs. [Journal Article]Nat Commun 2017 Nov 21; 8(1):1648.NCDeng YQ, Zhang NN, Li XF, et al. Zika virus (ZIKV) is primarily transmitted to humans through mosquito bites or sexual contact. The excretion and persistence of contagious ZIKV in various body fluids have been well documented in ZIKV ...Publisher Full TextZika virus (ZIKV) is primarily transmitted to humans through mosquito bites or sexual contact. The excretion and persistence of contagious ZIKV in various body fluids have been well documented in ZIKV patients; however, the risk of direct contact exposure remains unclear. Here, we show that guinea pigs are susceptible to ZIKV infection via subcutaneous inoculation route; infected guinea pigs exhibit seroconversion and significant viral secretion in sera, saliva, and tears. Notably, ZIKV is efficiently transmitted from infected guinea pigs to naïve co-caged animals. In particular, intranasal inoculation of ZIKV is fully capable of establishing infection in guinea pigs, and viral antigens are detected in multiple tissues including brain and parotid glands. Cynomolgus macaques also efficiently acquire ZIKV infection via intranasal and intragastric inoculation routes. These collective results from animal models highlight the risk of exposure to ZIKV contaminants and raise the possibility of close contact transmission of ZIKV in humans.
- Prevalence and clinical profile of microcephaly in South America pre-Zika, 2005-14: prevalence and case-control study.
Prevalence and clinical profile of microcephaly in South America pre-Zika, 2005-14: prevalence and case-control study. [Journal Article]BMJ 2017 Nov 21.:j5018.BMJOrioli IM, Dolk H, Lopez-Camelo JS, et al. Objective To describe the prevalence and clinical spectrum of microcephaly in South America for the period 2005-14, before the start of the Zika epidemic in 2015, as a baseline for future surveillance ...Publisher Full TextObjective To describe the prevalence and clinical spectrum of microcephaly in South America for the period 2005-14, before the start of the Zika epidemic in 2015, as a baseline for future surveillance as the Zika epidemic spreads and as other infectious causes may emerge in future.Design Prevalence and case-control study.Data sources ECLAMC (Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations) database derived from 107 hospitals in 10 South American countries, 2005 to 2014. Data on microcephaly cases, four non-malformed controls per case, and all hospital births (all births for hospital based prevalence, resident within municipality for population based prevalence). For 2010-14, head circumference data were available and compared with Intergrowth charts.Results 552 microcephaly cases were registered, giving a hospital based prevalence of 4.4 (95% confidence interval 4.1 to 4.9) per 10 000 births and a population based prevalence of 3.0 (2.7 to 3.4) per 10 000. Prevalence varied significantly between countries and between regions and hospitals within countries. Thirty two per cent (n=175) of cases were prenatally diagnosed; 29% (n=159) were perinatal deaths. Twenty three per cent (n=128) were associated with a diagnosed genetic syndrome, 34% (n=189) polymalformed without a syndrome diagnosis, 12% (n=65) with associated neural malformations, and 26% (n=145) microcephaly only. In addition, 3.8% (n=21) had a STORCH (syphilis, toxoplasmosis, other including HIV, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex) infection diagnosis and 2.0% (n=11) had consanguineous parents. Head circumference measurements available for 184/235 cases in 2010-14 showed 45% (n=82) more than 3 SD below the mean, 24% (n=44) between 3 SD and 2 SD below the mean, and 32% (n=58) larger than -2 SD.Conclusion Extrapolated to the nearly 7 million annual births in South America, an estimated 2000-2500 microcephaly cases were diagnosed among births each year before the Zika epidemic began in 2015. Clinicians are using more than simple metrics to make microcephaly diagnoses. Endemic infections are important enduring causes of microcephaly.