Zika Virus Literature - Latest PubMed Articles

Below is an overview of latest articles and publications on Zika virus in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.

View also the Zika Open bulletin of the WHO. This Bulletin is an international journal of public health with a special focus on developing countries. Since it was first published in 1948, it has become one of the world’s leading public health journals. In keeping with its mission statement, the peer-reviewed monthly maintains an open-access policy so that the full contents of the journal and its archives are available online free of charge. As the flagship periodical of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Bulletin draws on WHO experts as editorial advisers, reviewers and authors as well as on external collaborators. Anyone can submit a paper to the Bulletin, and no author charges are levied.


  • The rise of Zika infection and microcephaly: what can we learn from a public health emergency?
    The rise of Zika infection and microcephaly: what can we learn from a public health emergency? [Journal Article, Review]Public Health 2017 Jun 23.:87-92.PHMcCloskey B, Endericks T The response to Zika highlights important issues and lessons for future outbreaks that might pose an international risk. Particular challenges arose in trying to maintain an evidence-based approach to ...Publisher Full TextTo consider why Zika was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), why it stopped being one and what we can learn from this for the future.This paper reviews the sequence of events and evidence base for the decision to declare Zika a PHEIC, the global response to this, the challenges in maintaining an evidence-based approach to outbreak response and identifies learning outcomes.Evidence review, all published articles in reputable UK and international journals were identified.The association between Zika virus infection and congenital malformations including microcephaly became a PHEIC on 1st February 2016 and was declared to be no longer an emergency in November 2016. This shaped the global response led by WHO in the first global emergency since Ebola in West Africa.The response to Zika highlights important issues and lessons for future outbreaks that might pose an international risk. Particular challenges arose in trying to maintain an evidence-based approach to public risk communication when the evidence is unclear or still evolving. The Zika incident also demonstrates the importance of public health practitioners and agencies understanding the political context in which outbreaks must be managed and understanding the competing factors that shape the political response.

  • Enhanced light microscopy visualization of virus particles from Zika virus to filamentous ebolaviruses.
    Enhanced light microscopy visualization of virus particles from Zika virus to filamentous ebolaviruses. [Journal Article]PLoS One 2017; 12(6):e0179728.PlosDaaboul GG, Freedman DS, Scherr SM, et al. Light microscopy is a powerful tool in the detection and analysis of parasites, fungi, and prokaryotes, but has been challenging to use for the detection of individual virus particles. Unlabeled virus ...Publisher Full TextLight microscopy is a powerful tool in the detection and analysis of parasites, fungi, and prokaryotes, but has been challenging to use for the detection of individual virus particles. Unlabeled virus particles are too small to be visualized using standard visible light microscopy. Characterization of virus particles is typically performed using higher resolution approaches such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. These approaches require purification of virions away from their normal millieu, requiring significant levels of expertise, and can only enumerate small numbers of particles per field of view. Here, we utilize a visible light imaging approach called Single Particle Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (SP-IRIS) that allows automated counting and sizing of thousands of individual virions. Virions are captured directly from complex solutions onto a silicon chip and then detected using a reflectance interference imaging modality. We show that the use of different imaging wavelengths allows the visualization of a multitude of virus particles. Using Violet/UV illumination, the SP-IRIS technique is able to detect individual flavivirus particles (~40 nm), while green light illumination is capable of identifying and discriminating between vesicular stomatitis virus and vaccinia virus (~360 nm). Strikingly, the technology allows the clear identification of filamentous infectious ebolavirus particles and virus-like particles. The ability to differentiate and quantify unlabeled virus particles extends the usefulness of traditional light microscopy and can be embodied in a straightforward benchtop approach allowing widespread applications ranging from rapid detection in biological fluids to analysis of virus-like particles for vaccine development and production.

  • Accuracy of Zika virus disease case definition during simultaneous Dengue and Chikungunya epidemics.
    Accuracy of Zika virus disease case definition during simultaneous Dengue and Chikungunya epidemics. [Journal Article]PLoS One 2017; 12(6):e0179725.PlosBraga JU, Bressan C, Dalvi APR, et al. Our derived score prediction model had the best performance because it demonstrated the highest sensitivity and specificity, 86·6% and 78·3%, respectively. This Zika case definition also had the highes...Publisher Full TextZika is a new disease in the American continent and its surveillance is of utmost importance, especially because of its ability to cause neurological manifestations as Guillain-Barré syndrome and serious congenital malformations through vertical transmission. The detection of suspected cases by the surveillance system depends on the case definition adopted. As the laboratory diagnosis of Zika infection still relies on the use of expensive and complex molecular techniques with low sensitivity due to a narrow window of detection, most suspected cases are not confirmed by laboratory tests, mainly reserved for pregnant women and newborns. In this context, an accurate definition of a suspected Zika case is crucial in order for the surveillance system to gauge the magnitude of an epidemic.We evaluated the accuracy of various Zika case definitions in a scenario where Dengue and Chikungunya viruses co-circulate. Signs and symptoms that best discriminated PCR confirmed Zika from other laboratory confirmed febrile or exanthematic diseases were identified to propose and test predictive models for Zika infection based on these clinical features.Our derived score prediction model had the best performance because it demonstrated the highest sensitivity and specificity, 86·6% and 78·3%, respectively. This Zika case definition also had the highest values for auROC (0·903) and R2 (0·417), and the lowest Brier score 0·096.In areas where multiple arboviruses circulate, the presence of rash with pruritus or conjunctival hyperemia, without any other general clinical manifestations such as fever, petechia or anorexia is the best Zika case definition.

  • RNA editing by the host ADAR system affects the molecular evolution of the Zika virus.
    RNA editing by the host ADAR system affects the molecular evolution of the Zika virus. [Journal Article]Ecol Evol 2017 Jun; 7(12):4475-4485.EEPiontkivska H, Frederick M, Miyamoto MM, et al. Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, linked to microcephaly and fetal death in humans. Here, we investigate whether host-mediated RNA editing of adenosines (ADAR) plays a role in the...Publisher Full TextZika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, linked to microcephaly and fetal death in humans. Here, we investigate whether host-mediated RNA editing of adenosines (ADAR) plays a role in the molecular evolution of ZIKV. Using complete coding sequences for the ZIKV polyprotein, we show that potential ADAR substitutions are underrepresented at the ADAR-resistant GA dinucleotides of both the positive and negative strands, that these changes are spatially and temporally clustered (as expected of ADAR editing) for three branches of the viral phylogeny, and that ADAR mutagenesis can be linked to its codon usage. Furthermore, resistant GA dinucleotides are enriched on the positive (but not negative) strand, indicating that the former is under stronger purifying selection than the latter. ADAR editing also affects the evolution of the rhabdovirus sigma. Our study now documents that host ADAR editing is a mutation and evolutionary force of positive- as well as negative-strand RNA viruses.

  • An Approach for a Synthetic CTL Vaccine Design against Zika Flavivirus Using Class I and Class II Epitopes Identified by Computer Modeling.
    An Approach for a Synthetic CTL Vaccine Design against Zika Flavivirus Using Class I and Class II Epitopes Identified by Computer Modeling. [Journal Article]Front Immunol 2017.:640.FICunha-Neto E, Rosa DS, Harris PE, et al. The threat posed by severe congenital abnormalities related to Zika virus (ZKV) infection during pregnancy has turned development of a ZKV vaccine into an emergency. Recent work suggests that the cytot...Publisher Full TextThe threat posed by severe congenital abnormalities related to Zika virus (ZKV) infection during pregnancy has turned development of a ZKV vaccine into an emergency. Recent work suggests that the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to infection is an important defense mechanism in response to ZKV. Here, we develop the rationale and strategy for a new approach to developing cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) vaccines for ZKV flavivirus infection. The proposed approach is based on recent studies using a protein structure computer model for HIV epitope selection designed to select epitopes for CTL attack optimized for viruses that exhibit antigenic drift. Because naturally processed and presented human ZKV T cell epitopes have not yet been described, we identified predicted class I peptide sequences on ZKV matching previously identified DNV (Dengue) class I epitopes and by using a Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) binding prediction tool. A subset of those met the criteria for optimal CD8+ attack based on physical chemistry parameters determined by analysis of the ZKV protein structure encoded in open source Protein Data File (PDB) format files. We also identified candidate ZKV epitopes predicted to bind promiscuously to multiple HLA class II molecules that could provide help to the CTL responses. This work suggests that a CTL vaccine for ZKV may be possible even if ZKV exhibits significant antigenic drift. We have previously described a microsphere-based CTL vaccine platform capable of eliciting an immune response for class I epitopes in mice and are currently working toward in vivo testing of class I and class II epitope delivery directed against ZKV epitopes using the same microsphere-based vaccine.

  • Preparing clinicians for (re-) emerging arbovirus infectious diseases in Europe.
    Preparing clinicians for (re-) emerging arbovirus infectious diseases in Europe. [Journal Article, Review]Clin Microbiol Infect 2017 Jun 22.CMSigfrid L, Reusken C, Eckerle I, et al. There are a range of arboviruses of clinical significance to Europe. There has been an increase in notifications of endemic and travel-imported arbovirus cases in recent years and an increased geograph...Publisher Full TextArthropod-borne virus (Arbovirus) infections are considered an emerging threat for Europe, with an increase in cases in recent decades. The increase in global travel and trade has contributed to the introduction of vectors and viruses into new geographical areas. Tropical arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya have re-emerged causing local, sporadic outbreaks ignited by travel-imported cases. The recent Zika virus outbreak in the Americas highlighted a need to strengthen preparedness to (re-)emerging arbovirus infections globally.To strengthen preparedness for the early identification of (re-)emerging arbovirus outbreaks in Europe and highlight areas for research.An evidence review of published and grey literature together with consultations with European arbovirus experts.This paper presents an overview of endemic and travel-imported arboviruses of clinical significance in Europe. The overview includes syndromic presentation, risk factors for infection and risk of transmission. Moreover, an update on treatments and vaccinations and surveillance notifications and reporting. The paper also presents predictive modelled risks of further geographical expansion of vectors and viruses.There are a range of arboviruses of clinical significance to Europe. There has been an increase in notifications of endemic and travel-imported arbovirus cases in recent years and an increased geographical range of vectors and viruses. The heterogeneity in surveillance reporting indicates a risk for the early identification of (re-)emerging outbreaks. The data presented shows a need to strengthen preparedness to (re-)emerging arbovirus infections and a need for research into neglected arboviruses, risks of non-vector transmission and effective therapeutics and vaccinations.

  • Rapid spread of an ongoing outbreak of Zika virus disease in pregnant women in a Mexican hospital.
    Rapid spread of an ongoing outbreak of Zika virus disease in pregnant women in a Mexican hospital. [Journal Article]Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Jun 22.BJGarza-González E, Mendoza-Olazarán S, Campos RR, et al. In the first nine weeks of implementation of a Zika Virus Preparedness Plan in a Mexican Public Hospital, we cared for 221 pregnant women with any signal or symptom suggesting ZIKV infection and 99 (44...Publisher Full TextIn the first nine weeks of implementation of a Zika Virus Preparedness Plan in a Mexican Public Hospital, we cared for 221 pregnant women with any signal or symptom suggesting ZIKV infection and 99 (44.8%) patients were found to be positive for ZIKV. The median age of patients was 25.3 years (range 13-49). Symptoms in PCR-positive patients were rash (91.4%) followed by headache (53.1%), myalgia (46.9%), arthralgia (45.7%), pruritus (35.8%), retroocular pain (29.6%), conjunctivitis (21%), and fever (21%). The women's epidemiologic exposure history indicates local transmission and a community outbreak.

  • Comparison of Zika virus (ZIKV) RNA detection in plasma, whole blood and urine - case series of travel-associated ZIKV infection imported to Italy, 2016.
    Comparison of Zika virus (ZIKV) RNA detection in plasma, whole blood and urine - case series of travel-associated ZIKV infection imported to Italy, 2016. [Journal Article]J Infect 2017 Jun 22.JIRossini G, Gaibani P, Vocale C, et al. Our results highlight the usefulness of simultaneously testing multiple specimen types in order to extend the rate and the time frame of ZIKV RNA detection, increasing the possibility of cases confirma...Publisher Full TextThe capability to detect ZIKV RNA is of crucial importance for cases confirmation. However, due to the short-lived viremia, the detection of ZIKV RNA in plasma/serum is challenging for samples collected more than one week after onset of clinical illness. We compared the window time and detection rate of ZIKV RNA in different specimen types (plasma, whole blood and urine) collected simultaneously at several times post-symptom onset.We examined the presence of ZIKV RNA in matched specimens of whole blood, plasma and urine collected in the same date (3-28 days after symptom onset) from 10 ZIKV infected patients.ZIKV RNA was found in plasma as late as 10 days after symptoms onset and tested positive in all 5 (100%) and in 2 of 6 (33,3%) plasma samples collected 1-5 and 6-10 days after symptoms onset, respectively. ZIKV RNA was positive in urine through the 21(st) day after symptom onset; the detection rate of ZIKV RNA in urine samples was 100% (11/11) for samples collected 1-10 days from symptoms onset, decreasing at later times of sampling. The detection rate of ZIKV RNA in whole blood was comparable to that in urine samples but extended the window of detection of ZIKV RNA up to 26 days after symptom onset.Our results highlight the usefulness of simultaneously testing multiple specimen types in order to extend the rate and the time frame of ZIKV RNA detection, increasing the possibility of cases confirmation through direct diagnosis in convalescence-phase of infection, supplementing serological data which are often difficult to interpret.

  • Risk of Zika-related microcephaly: stable or variable?
    Risk of Zika-related microcephaly: stable or variable? [Journal Article]Lancet 2017 Jun 21.LctRodrigues LC, Paixao ES Publisher Full Text

  • An update on Zika virus infection.
    An update on Zika virus infection. [Journal Article, Review]Lancet 2017 Jun 21.LctBaud D, Gubler DJ, Schaub B, et al. The epidemic history of Zika virus began in 2007, with its emergence in Yap Island in the western Pacific, followed in 2013-14 by a larger epidemic in French Polynesia, south Pacific, where the first s...Publisher Full TextThe epidemic history of Zika virus began in 2007, with its emergence in Yap Island in the western Pacific, followed in 2013-14 by a larger epidemic in French Polynesia, south Pacific, where the first severe complications and non-vector-borne transmission of the virus were reported. Zika virus emerged in Brazil in 2015 and was declared a national public health emergency after local researchers and physicians reported an increase in microcephaly cases. In 2016, WHO declared the recent cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders reported in Brazil a global public health emergency. Similar clusters of microcephaly cases were also observed retrospectively in French Polynesia in 2014. In 2015-16, Zika virus continued its spread to cause outbreaks in the Americas and the Pacific, and the first outbreaks were reported in continental USA, Africa, and southeast Asia. Non-vector-borne transmission was confirmed and Zika virus was established as a cause of severe neurological complications in fetuses, neonates, and adults. This Review focuses on important updates and gaps in the knowledge of Zika virus as of early 2017.