Zika Virus Literature - Latest PubMed Articles

Below is an overview of latest articles and publications on Zika virus in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.

View also the Zika Open bulletin of the WHO. This Bulletin is an international journal of public health with a special focus on developing countries. Since it was first published in 1948, it has become one of the world’s leading public health journals. In keeping with its mission statement, the peer-reviewed monthly maintains an open-access policy so that the full contents of the journal and its archives are available online free of charge. As the flagship periodical of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Bulletin draws on WHO experts as editorial advisers, reviewers and authors as well as on external collaborators. Anyone can submit a paper to the Bulletin, and no author charges are levied.


  • Distinct Zika responses.
    Distinct Zika responses. [Journal Article]Nat Immunol 2017 Sep 19; 18(10):1067.NIDempsey LA 

  • Pentagalloylglucose, a highly bioavailable polyphenolic compound present in Cortex moutan, efficiently blocks hepatitis C virus entry.
    Pentagalloylglucose, a highly bioavailable polyphenolic compound present in Cortex moutan, efficiently blocks hepatitis C virus entry. [Journal Article]Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 15.ARBehrendt P, Perin P, Menzel N, et al. Approximately 142 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Although potent direct acting antivirals are available, high costs limit access to treatment. Chronic hepatitis C v...Approximately 142 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Although potent direct acting antivirals are available, high costs limit access to treatment. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection remains a major cause of orthotopic liver transplantation. Moreover, re-infection of the graft occurs regularly. Antivirals derived from natural sources might be an alternative and cost-effective option to complement therapy regimens for global control of hepatitis C virus infection. We tested the antiviral properties of a mixture of different Chinese herbs/roots named Zhi Bai Di Huang Wan (ZBDHW) and its individual components on HCV. One of the ZBDHW components, Penta-O-Galloyl-Glucose (PGG), was further analyzed for its mode of action in vitro, its antiviral activity in primary human hepatocytes as well as for its bioavailability and hepatotoxicity in mice. ZBDHW, its component Cortex Moutan and the compound PGG efficiently block entry of HCV of all major genotypes and also of the related flavivirus Zika virus. PGG does not disrupt HCV virion integrity and acts primarily during virus attachment. PGG shows an additive effect when combined with the well characterized HCV inhibitor Daclatasvir. Analysis of bioavailability in mice revealed plasma levels above tissue culture IC50 after a single intraperitoneal injection. In conclusion, PGG is a pangenotypic HCV entry inhibitor with high bioavailability. The low cost and wide availability of this compound make it a promising candidate for HCV combination therapies, and also emerging human pathogenic flaviviruses like ZIKV.

  • Molecular dynamics simulation revealed binding of nucleotide inhibitors to ZIKV polymerase over 444 nanoseconds.
    Molecular dynamics simulation revealed binding of nucleotide inhibitors to ZIKV polymerase over 444 nanoseconds. [Journal Article]J Med Virol 2017 Sep 18.JMElfiky AA, Elshemey WM In the year 2015, new Zika virus (ZIKV) broke out in Brazil and spread away in more than 80 countries. Scientists directed their efforts toward viral polymerase in attempt to find inhibitors that might...In the year 2015, new Zika virus (ZIKV) broke out in Brazil and spread away in more than 80 countries. Scientists directed their efforts toward viral polymerase in attempt to find inhibitors that might interfere with its function. In this study, molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) was performed over 444 ns for a ZIKV polymerase model. Molecular docking (MD) was then performed every 10 ns during the MDS course to ensure the binding of small molecules to the polymerase over the entire time of the simulation. MD revealed the binding ability of four suggested guanosine inhibitors (GIs); (Guanosine substituted with OH and SH (phenyl) oxidanyl in the 2' carbon of the ribose ring). The GIs were compared to guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and five anti-hepatitis C virus drugs (either approved or under clinical trials). The mode of binding and the binding performance of GIs to ZIKV polymerase were found to be the same as GTP. Hence, these compounds were capable of competing GTP for the active site. Moreover, GIs bound to ZIKV active site more tightly compared to ribavirin, the wide-range antiviral drug.

  • Zika virus RNA detection in asymptomatic blood donors during an outbreak in the northeast region of São Paulo State, Brazil, 2016.
    Zika virus RNA detection in asymptomatic blood donors during an outbreak in the northeast region of São Paulo State, Brazil, 2016. [Journal Article]Transfusion 2017 Sep 16.TSlavov SN, Hespanhol MR, Rodrigues ES, et al. This is the first study evaluating the prevalence of ZIKV RNA among Brazilian blood donors, which was relatively high and might lead to TT-ZIKV infection. It is unclear whether the simultaneous presenc...In 2015, there was a large Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Brazil. The proportion of asymptomatic infections is very high, and it is possible for transfusion-transmitted ZIKV (TT-ZIKV) infection to occur. The prevalence of asymptomatic ZIKV infection among Brazilian blood donors during this epidemic outbreak is unknown.Plasma samples obtained between October 2015 and May 2016 from 1393 volunteer blood donors were tested for ZIKV RNA. The viral load was quantified using an in-house standard curve. Additionally, positive ZIKV RNA samples were tested for anti-ZIKV immunoglobulin (Ig)M and anti-ZIKV IgG.Of the 1393 blood samples, ZIKV RNA was detected in 37 (n = 37/1393; 2.7%). The median infection viral load detected was 7714 copies/mL (ranging from 135-124,220 copies/mL). The majority of the positive samples (70.3%) exhibited a viral load of approximately 10(3) copies/mL. Six samples that were positive for ZIKV RNA were also positive for anti-ZIKV IgM and IgG (n = 6/37; 13.5%).This is the first study evaluating the prevalence of ZIKV RNA among Brazilian blood donors, which was relatively high and might lead to TT-ZIKV infection. It is unclear whether the simultaneous presence of anti-ZIKV IgM and IgG in RNA-positive donations or the viral load influences transfusion transmission of the infection. This study also adds to the global understanding of ZIKV prevalence in blood donors during outbreaks and the transfusion impact of the infection.

  • Pathogen inactivation of Dengue virus in red blood cells using amustaline and glutathione.
    Pathogen inactivation of Dengue virus in red blood cells using amustaline and glutathione. [Journal Article]Transfusion 2017 Sep 16.TAubry M, Laughhunn A, Santa Maria F, et al. Treatment using S-303/GSH inactivated high levels of DENV in RBCs to the limit of detection. In combination with previous studies showing the effective inactivation of DENV in plasma and platelets usin...Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus primarily transmitted through mosquito bite; however, DENV transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) have been reported and asymptomatic DENV RNA-positive blood donors have been identified in endemic countries. DENV is considered a high-risk pathogen for blood safety. One of the mitigation strategies to prevent arbovirus TTIs is pathogen inactivation. In this study we demonstrate that the amustaline and glutathione (S-303/GSH) treatment previously found effective against Zika virus in red blood cells (RBCs) is also effective in inactivating DENV.Red blood cells were spiked with high levels of DENV. Viral RNA loads and infectious titers were measured in the untreated control and before and after pathogen inactivation treatment of RBC samples. DENV infectivity was also assessed over five successive cell culture passages to detect any potential residual replicative virus.The mean ± SD DENV titer in RBCs before inactivation was 6.61 ± 0.19 log 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 )/mL and the mean viral RNA load was 8.42 log genome equivalents/mL. No replicative DENV was detected either immediately after completion of treatment using S-303/GSH or after cell culture passages.Treatment using S-303/GSH inactivated high levels of DENV in RBCs to the limit of detection. In combination with previous studies showing the effective inactivation of DENV in plasma and platelets using the licensed amotosalen/UVA system, this study demonstrates that high levels of DENV can be inactivated in all blood components.

  • Status, quality and specific needs of Zika virus (ZIKV) diagnostic capacity and capability in National Reference Laboratories for arboviruses in 30 EU/EEA countries, May 2016.
    Status, quality and specific needs of Zika virus (ZIKV) diagnostic capacity and capability in National Reference Laboratories for arboviruses in 30 EU/EEA countries, May 2016. [Journal Article]Euro Surveill 2017 Sep 07; 22(36)ESMögling R, Zeller H, Revez J, et al. With international travel, Zika virus (ZIKV) is introduced to Europe regularly. A country's ability to robustly detect ZIKV introduction and local transmission is important to minimise the risk for a Z...With international travel, Zika virus (ZIKV) is introduced to Europe regularly. A country's ability to robustly detect ZIKV introduction and local transmission is important to minimise the risk for a ZIKV outbreak. Therefore, sufficient expertise and diagnostic capacity and capability are required in European laboratories. To assess the capacity, quality, operational specifics (guidelines and algorithms), technical and interpretation issues and other possible difficulties that were related to ZIKV diagnostics in European countries, a questionnaire was conducted among national reference laboratories in 30 countries in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in May 2016. While the coverage and capacity of ZIKV diagnostics in the EU/EEA national reference laboratories were found to be adequate, the assessment of the quality and needs indicated several crucial points of improvement that will need support at national and EU/EEA level to improve ZIKV preparedness, response and EU/EEA ZIKV surveillance activities.

  • Outbreak of Zika virus disease.
    Outbreak of Zika virus disease. [Journal Article]J Res Med Sci 2017.:89.JRWiwanitkit V 

  • Incidence and risk factors for Dengue virus (DENV) infection in the first 2 years of life in a Brazilian prospective birth cohort.
    Incidence and risk factors for Dengue virus (DENV) infection in the first 2 years of life in a Brazilian prospective birth cohort. [Journal Article]Epidemiol Infect 2017 Sep 18.:1-9.EICastanha PMS, Montarroyos UR, Silveira SMM, et al. This study assessed the incidence and risk factors for dengue virus (DENV) infection among children in a prospective birth cohort conducted in the city of Recife, a hyperendemic dengue area in Northeas...This study assessed the incidence and risk factors for dengue virus (DENV) infection among children in a prospective birth cohort conducted in the city of Recife, a hyperendemic dengue area in Northeast Brazil. Healthy pregnant women (n = 415) residing in Recife who agreed to have their children followed were enrolled. Children were followed during their first 24 months of age (May/2011-June/2014), before the 2015 Zika virus outbreak. DENV infection was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and/or serology (anti-DENV IgM/IgG). The incidence rates per 1000 person-years (py) and its association with risk factors by age bands (0-12, >12-30 months) were estimated through Poisson regression models. Forty-nine dengue infections were detected; none progressed to severe forms. The incidence rates were 107·6/1000py (95% CI 76·8-150·6) and 93·3/1000py (95% CI 56·1-154·4) in the first and second years of age, respectively. Male children (risk ratios (RR) = 2·33; 95% CI 1·09-4·98) and those born to DENV-naïve mothers (RR = 2·42; 95% CI 1·01-5·80) were at greater risk of infection in the first year of age. In the second year, children born to Caucasian/Asian descent skin colour mothers had a threefold higher risk of infection (RR = 3·34; 95% CI: 1·08-10·33). These data show the high exposure of children to DENV infection in our setting and highlight the role of biological factors in this population's susceptibility to infection.

  • Clinical, laboratory and virological data from suspected ZIKV patients in an endemic arbovirus area.
    Clinical, laboratory and virological data from suspected ZIKV patients in an endemic arbovirus area. [Journal Article]J Clin Virol 2017 Sep 09.:20-25.JCColombo TE, Estofolete CF, Reis AFN, et al. Our data suggests that clinical and epidemiological criteria alone are not a good tool for ZIKV and DENV differentiation, and that laboratory diagnosis should be mandatory.The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) presents new challenges to both clinicians and public health authorities. Overlapping clinical features between the diseases caused by ZIKV, dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) and the lack of validated serological assays for ZIKV make accurate diagnosis difficult. Brazilian authorities largely rely on clinical and epidemiological data for the epidemiological and clinical classifications of most ZIKV cases.To report the laboratory and clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with Zika fever based only on clinical and epidemiological data.We analyzed 433 suspected cases of ZIKV identified by the attending physician based on proposed clinical criteria. The samples were also screened for ZIKV, DENV and CHIKV using PCR.Of the 433 patients analyzed, 168 (38.8%) were laboratory-confirmed for arboviruses: 96 were positive for ZIKV, 67 were positive for DENV (56 for DENV-2, 9 for DENV-1, and 2 for DENV-4), four were positive for co-infection with ZIKV/DENV-2, and one was positive for CHIKV. The most common signs or symptoms in the patients with laboratory-confirmed ZIKV were rash (100%), arthralgia (77.1%), fever (74.0%), myalgia (74.0%) and non-purulent conjunctivitis (69.8%). In patients with laboratory-confirmed DENV infections, the most frequently observed symptoms were rash (100%), fever (79.1%), myalgia (74.6%), headache (73.1%) and arthralgia (70.1%). The measure of association between clinical manifestations and laboratory manifestations among patients with ZIKV and DENV detected a statistically significant difference only in abdominal pain (p=0.04), leukopenia (p=0.003), and thrombocytopenia (p=0.01).Our data suggests that clinical and epidemiological criteria alone are not a good tool for ZIKV and DENV differentiation, and that laboratory diagnosis should be mandatory.

  • KIR2DS2 recognizes conserved peptides derived from viral helicases in the context of HLA-C.
    KIR2DS2 recognizes conserved peptides derived from viral helicases in the context of HLA-C. [Journal Article]Sci Immunol 2017 Sep 15; 2(15)SINaiyer MM, Cassidy SA, Magri A, et al. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are rapidly evolving species-specific natural killer (NK) cell receptors associated with protection against multiple different human viral infections. W...Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are rapidly evolving species-specific natural killer (NK) cell receptors associated with protection against multiple different human viral infections. We report that the activating receptor KIR2DS2 directly recognizes viral peptides derived from conserved regions of flaviviral superfamily 2 RNA helicases in the context of major histocompatibility complex class I. We started by documenting that peptide LNPSVAATL from the hepatitis C virus (HCV) helicase binds HLA-C*0102, leading to NK cell activation through engagement of KIR2DS2. Although this region is highly conserved across HCV isolates, the sequence is not present in other flaviviral helicases. Embarking on a search for a conserved target of KIR2DS2, we show that HLA-C*0102 presents a different highly conserved peptide from the helicase motif 1b region of related flaviviruses, including dengue, Zika, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, to KIR2DS2. In contrast to LNPSVAATL from HCV, these flaviviral peptides all contain an "MCHAT" motif, which is present in 61 of 63 flaviviruses. Despite the difference in the peptide sequences, we show that KIR2DS2 recognizes endogenously presented helicase peptides and that KIR2DS2 is sufficient to inhibit HCV and dengue virus replication in the context of HLA-C*0102. Targeting short, but highly conserved, viral peptides provide nonrearranging innate immune receptors with an efficient mechanism to recognize multiple, highly variable, pathogenic RNA viruses.