View also the Zika Open bulletin of the WHO. This Bulletin is an international journal of public health with a special focus on developing countries. Since it was first published in 1948, it has become one of the world’s leading public health journals. In keeping with its mission statement, the peer-reviewed monthly maintains an open-access policy so that the full contents of the journal and its archives are available online free of charge. As the flagship periodical of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Bulletin draws on WHO experts as editorial advisers, reviewers and authors as well as on external collaborators. Anyone can submit a paper to the Bulletin, and no author charges are levied.
- Kinetics of Zika Viral Load in Semen.
Kinetics of Zika Viral Load in Semen. [Journal Article]N Engl J Med 2017 Aug 17; 377(7):697-699.NEJMde Laval F, Matheus S, Labrousse T, et al.
- Congenital Zika syndrome: an epidemic of neurologic disability.
Congenital Zika syndrome: an epidemic of neurologic disability. [Journal Article]Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2017 Aug; 75(8):605.ANPaciorkowski AR Publisher Full Text
- Inhibitors of the Histone Methyltransferases EZH2/1 Induce a Potent Antiviral State and Suppress Infection by Diverse Viral Pathogens.
Inhibitors of the Histone Methyltransferases EZH2/1 Induce a Potent Antiviral State and Suppress Infection by Diverse Viral Pathogens. [Journal Article]MBio 2017 Aug 15; 8(4)MBIOArbuckle JH, Gardina PJ, Gordon DN, et al. Epigenetic regulation is based on a network of complexes that modulate the chromatin character and structure of the genome to impact gene expression, cell fate, and development. Thus, epigenetic modula...Publisher Full TextEpigenetic regulation is based on a network of complexes that modulate the chromatin character and structure of the genome to impact gene expression, cell fate, and development. Thus, epigenetic modulators represent novel therapeutic targets used to treat a range of diseases, including malignancies. Infectious pathogens such as herpesviruses are also regulated by cellular epigenetic machinery, and epigenetic therapeutics represent a novel approach used to control infection, persistence, and the resulting recurrent disease. The histone H3K27 methyltransferases EZH2 and EZH1 (EZH2/1) are epigenetic repressors that suppress gene transcription via propagation of repressive H3K27me3-enriched chromatin domains. However, while EZH2/1 are implicated in the repression of herpesviral gene expression, inhibitors of these enzymes suppressed primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in vitro and in vivo Furthermore, these compounds blocked lytic viral replication following induction of HSV reactivation in latently infected sensory ganglia. Suppression correlated with the induction of multiple inflammatory, stress, and antipathogen pathways, as well as enhanced recruitment of immune cells to in vivo infection sites. Importantly, EZH2/1 inhibitors induced a cellular antiviral state that also suppressed infection with DNA (human cytomegalovirus, adenovirus) and RNA (Zika virus) viruses. Thus, EZH2/1 inhibitors have considerable potential as general antivirals through the activation of cellular antiviral and immune responses.IMPORTANCE A significant proportion of the world's population is infected with herpes simplex virus. Primary infection and subsequent recurrent reactivation can result in diseases ranging from mild lesions to severe ocular or neurological damage. Herpesviruses are subject to epigenetic regulation that modulates viral gene expression, lytic replication, and latency-reactivation cycles. Thus, epigenetic pharmaceuticals have the potential to alter the course of infection and disease. Here, while the histone methyltransferases EZH2/1 are implicated in the suppression of herpesviruses, inhibitors of these repressors unexpectedly suppress viral infection in vitro and in vivo by induction of key components of cellular innate defense pathways. These inhibitors suppress infection by multiple viral pathogens, indicating their potential as broad-spectrum antivirals.
- Zika Virus Research Models.
Zika Virus Research Models. [Journal Article, Review]Virus Res 2017 Aug 12.VRKublin JL, Whitney JB The 2015 Brazilian Zika virus outbreak sparked a rapid response to control the spread of the virus. What was first understood to be a mild self-resolving infection is now linked to significant neurolog...The 2015 Brazilian Zika virus outbreak sparked a rapid response to control the spread of the virus. What was first understood to be a mild self-resolving infection is now linked to significant neurological defects in both neonates, and adults. The WHO declared the 2016 Zika epidemic a public health emergency and issued an unprecedented recommendation to women in affected regions to delay pregnancy until the risks surrounding Zika virus could be understood, or the epidemic contained. Since that time, considerable effort has been dedicated to understanding Zika transmission and pathogenesis to aid the development of drugs and vaccines. Several models have emerged to study several facets of Zika biology; this review details the various model systems.
- Viral Retinopathy in Experimental Models of Zika Infection.
Viral Retinopathy in Experimental Models of Zika Infection. [Journal Article]Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017 Aug 01; 58(10):4075-4085.IOZhao Z, Yang M, Azar SR, et al. Our data suggest that ZIKV can infect infant eyes with immature blood-retinal barrier and cause structural damages to the retina. The ocular findings in microcephalic infants may not be solely caused b...Publisher Full TextEmerging evidence has shown that both congenital and adult Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can cause eye diseases. The goals of the current study were to explore mechanisms and pathophysiology of ZIKV-induced eye defects.Wild-type or A129 interferon type I receptor-deficient mice were infected by either FSS13025 or Mex1-7 strain of ZIKV. Retinal histopathology was measured at different time points after infection. The presence of viral RNA and protein in the retina was determined by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Growth curves of ZIKV in permissive retinal cells were assessed in cultured retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and Müller glial cells.ZIKV-infected mice developed a spectrum of ocular pathologies that affected multiple layers of the retina. A primary target of ZIKV in the eye was Müller glial cells, which displayed decreased neurotrophic function and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines after infection. ZIKV also infected RPE; and both the RPE and Müller cells expressed viral entry receptors TYRO3 and AXL. Retinitis, focal retinal degeneration, and ganglion cell loss were observed after the clearance of viral particles.Our data suggest that ZIKV can infect infant eyes with immature blood-retinal barrier and cause structural damages to the retina. The ocular findings in microcephalic infants may not be solely caused by ZIKV-induced impairment of neurodevelopment.
- Examining Mosquito Surveillance and Control Capacity in the Top 10 Areas at Risk for Zika Virus Exposure in the United States.
Examining Mosquito Surveillance and Control Capacity in the Top 10 Areas at Risk for Zika Virus Exposure in the United States. [Journal Article]J Public Health Manag Pract 2017 Sep/Oct; 23(5):515-517.JPGridley-Smith CL Aggregator Full Text
- An economic evaluation of vector control in the age of a dengue vaccine.
An economic evaluation of vector control in the age of a dengue vaccine. [Journal Article]PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 14; 11(8):e0005785.PNFitzpatrick C, Haines A, Bangert M, et al. Economic evaluation of the first-ever dengue vaccine is ongoing. However, even under very optimistic assumptions about a highly targeted and low cost immunization strategy, our results suggest that sus...Publisher Full TextDengue is a rapidly emerging vector-borne Neglected Tropical Disease, with a 30-fold increase in the number of cases reported since 1960. The economic cost of the illness is measured in the billions of dollars annually. Environmental change and unplanned urbanization are conspiring to raise the health and economic cost even further beyond the reach of health systems and households. The health-sector response has depended in large part on control of the Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus (mosquito) vectors. The cost-effectiveness of the first-ever dengue vaccine remains to be evaluated in the field. In this paper, we examine how it might affect the cost-effectiveness of sustained vector control.We employ a dynamic Markov model of the effects of vector control on dengue in both vectors and humans over a 15-year period, in six countries: Brazil, Columbia, Malaysia, Mexico, the Philippines, and Thailand. We evaluate the cost (direct medical costs and control programme costs) and cost-effectiveness of sustained vector control, outbreak response and/or medical case management, in the presence of a (hypothetical) highly targeted and low cost immunization strategy using a (non-hypothetical) medium-efficacy vaccine.Sustained vector control using existing technologies would cost little more than outbreak response, given the associated costs of medical case management. If sustained use of existing or upcoming technologies (of similar price) reduce vector populations by 70-90%, the cost per disability-adjusted life year averted is 2013 US$ 679-1331 (best estimates) relative to no intervention. Sustained vector control could be highly cost-effective even with less effective technologies (50-70% reduction in vector populations) and in the presence of a highly targeted and low cost immunization strategy using a medium-efficacy vaccine.Economic evaluation of the first-ever dengue vaccine is ongoing. However, even under very optimistic assumptions about a highly targeted and low cost immunization strategy, our results suggest that sustained vector control will continue to play an important role in mitigating the impact of environmental change and urbanization on human health. If additional benefits for the control of other Aedes borne diseases, such as Chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika fever are taken into account, the investment case is even stronger. High-burden endemic countries should proceed to map populations to be covered by sustained vector control.
- Public sentiment and discourse about Zika virus on Instagram.
Public sentiment and discourse about Zika virus on Instagram. [Journal Article]Public Health 2017 Aug 11.:170-175.PHSeltzer EK, Horst-Martz E, Lu M, et al. Instagram can be used to characterize public sentiment and highlight areas of focus for public health, such as correcting misleading or incomplete information or expanding messages to reach diverse aud...Publisher Full TextSocial media have strongly influenced the awareness and perceptions of public health emergencies, and a considerable amount of social media content is now shared through images, rather than text alone. This content can impact preparedness and response due to the popularity and real-time nature of social media platforms. We sought to explore how the image-sharing platform Instagram is used for information dissemination and conversation during the current Zika outbreak.This was a retrospective review of publicly posted images about Zika on Instagram.Using the keyword '#zika' we identified 500 images posted on Instagram from May to August 2016. Images were coded by three reviewers and contextual information was collected for each image about sentiment, image type, content, audience, geography, reliability, and engagement.Of 500 images tagged with #zika, 342 (68%) contained content actually related to Zika. Of the 342 Zika-specific images, 299 were coded as 'health' and 193 were coded 'public interest'. Some images had multiple 'health' and 'public interest' codes. Health images tagged with #zika were primarily related to transmission (43%, 129/299) and prevention (48%, 145/299). Transmission-related posts were more often mosquito-human transmission (73%, 94/129) than human-human transmission (27%, 35/129). Mosquito bite prevention posts outnumbered safe sex prevention; (84%, 122/145) and (16%, 23/145) respectively. Images with a target audience were primarily aimed at women (95%, 36/38). Many posts (60%, 61/101) included misleading, incomplete, or unclear information about the virus. Additionally, many images expressed fear and negative sentiment, (79/156, 51%).Instagram can be used to characterize public sentiment and highlight areas of focus for public health, such as correcting misleading or incomplete information or expanding messages to reach diverse audiences.
- Zika virus-induced neurological critical illness in Latin America: Severe Guillain-Barre Syndrome and encephalitis.
Zika virus-induced neurological critical illness in Latin America: Severe Guillain-Barre Syndrome and encephalitis. [Journal Article]J Crit Care 2017 Aug 09.:275-281.JCUgarte SU, Arenas ARV, Alvarez BC, et al. Differing from what was usually reported, ZIKAV infection can result in life-threatening neurologic illness in adults, including GBS and encephalitis. Collaborative reporting to identify severe illness...Publisher Full TextPublisher Full TextZika virus (ZIKAV) is classically described as causing minor symptoms in adult patients, however neurologic complications have been recognized. The recent outbreak in Central and South America has resulted in serious illness in some adult patients. We report adult patients in Latin America diagnosed with ZIKAV infection admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICUs).Multicenter, prospective case series of adult patients with laboratory diagnosis of ZIKAV in 16 ICUs in 8 countries.Between December 1st 2015 and April 2nd 2016, 16 ICUs in 8 countries enrolled 49 critically ill patients with diagnosis of ZIKAV infection. We included 10 critically ill patients with ZIKAV infection, as diagnosed with RT-PCR, admitted to the ICU. Neurologic manifestations concordant with Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) were present in all patients, although 2 evolved into an encephalitis-like picture. 2 cases died, one due to encephalitis, the other septic shock.Differing from what was usually reported, ZIKAV infection can result in life-threatening neurologic illness in adults, including GBS and encephalitis. Collaborative reporting to identify severe illness from an emerging pathogen can provide valuable insights into disease epidemiology and clinical presentation, and inform public health authorities about acute care priorities.
- Paediatric Zika - Beyond Pregnant Women.
Paediatric Zika - Beyond Pregnant Women. [Journal Article]Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2017 Aug 14.PPHarville EW Publisher Full Text